Перенос новой системы на новое оборудование?

Я заинтересован в портировании своей системы на новое аппаратное обеспечение, которое я только что приобрел.

Может Я создаю ISO-образ диска и просто помещаю его на жесткий диск другого компьютера (конечно, убедившись, что на нем есть разделы GPT и EFI-сектора).

Реагирует ли система на новое оборудование, или мне следует переустановить ОС так, что у него есть соответствующие драйверы?

задан 26 June 2020 в 20:59

2 ответа

When moving to completely new hardware, it is recommended to do a completely fresh install. Many Linux distributions have customization and optimization based on different hardware detected upon installation. Even if everything seems to be running fine, your system could be running more slowly due to poor optimization, or new features not being enabled, etc.

One benefit of migration is that you can keep the old system alive until the new system is performing as you wish. If you update the existing machine, you can bring it to a broken state, which would make it harder to replicate or pull information from it.

On the new system, simply get the OS running. Then, one by one, get each application you wish to run working properly. Instead of trying to install everything at once and potentially run into many issues, take each program, one at a time, and get it working. I hope it's clear how this will help with your sanity and identifying and tackling issues.

You may notice that things work out of the box that used to require manual intervention. For example, maybe you haven't messed with any Xorg files, but your monitor works. This is an example of when blindly copying all the config files at once would be bad. Don't adjust things that work until you have reason.

There are a few things that may help with migrating, however. For example, configurations for various programs can be found in each user's ~/.config directory. Unfortunately this isn't true for every program, and some may store their settings elsewhere. This is why having the old system up and running is handy.

You may have special system configurations, or system-wide configurations for different applications. It's good to keep track of these files yourself, but you can use the following command to help remind yourself:

dpkg-query -W -f='${Conffiles}\n' '*' | awk 'OFS="  "{print $2,$1}' | md5sum -c 2>/dev/null | awk -F': ' '$2 !~ /OK/{print $1}'

Another approach may be to use directories and different partitions to isolate data in ways that make targeting system or application data erasure possible.

While you're not actually upgrading, take a look at the previous LTS to current LTS upgrade documentation (ie: 18.04 to 20.04 Upgrade Docs) to see if there are any big changes. Large changes will be found here, such as the switch to systemctl. The maintainers try very hard to make new releases similar/compatible, but sometimes big changes require some manual steps.

ответ дан 30 July 2020 в 22:18

I can think of several reasons why reinstall is preferred for non-expert users:

  • Architecture: "Why won't my Pi run this?"
  • Kernel Module Config/Hardware Changes: "Why won't my new wi-fi work?"
  • /etc/fstab uses UUID now: "It can't find my disks!"
  • Preventing Brittleness: "I don't remember how I built it, and I just hope it doesn't break."
  • Newbie mistakes: Unskilled users might find a way to copy /proc and /dev, not realizing the headaches they just created.

I consider guiding unskilled users back toward the marked, supported path as generally desirable. Keeping folks on the marked path reduces the support burden here, and lots of the Debian/Ubuntu design is about minimizing the support burden...since it's all done by volunteers.

ответ дан 30 July 2020 в 22:18

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